Jan 29, 2015No Meat, No Problem
As vegetarianism and veganism grow more and more popular, many people wonder how a meat-free diet affects athletic performance goals. Our expert dishes on the risks and the rewards.
By Lisa Dorfman
Lisa Dorfman, MS, RD, CSSD, LMHC, is Director of Sports Nutrition and Performance at the University of Miami. She can be reached at: [email protected].
What do the NFL’s Tony Gonzalez and Ricky Williams, NHL “tough guy” Georges Laraque, track and field Olympians Carl Lewis and Edwin Moses, six-time Ironman champion Dave Scott, and ultramarathon runner Scott Jurek all have in common? For one thing, they’re all outstanding athletes. For another, they’re among the growing corps of athletes who are vegetarian or vegan.
When most people think of an optimal diet for athletic performance, they imagine covering all corners of the food pyramid–after all, that’s the best way to ensure an athlete gets the carbohydrates, protein, healthy fat, vitamins, and minerals they need to fuel their engine and promote muscle growth, right? The fact is, vegetarian athletes can and do meet all their nutritional needs despite limiting the use of animal products or eliminating them altogether. In fact, some research suggests they even have an advantage over their meat-eating counterparts.
There are many reasons why someone chooses to become a vegetarian. It may be rooted in religious beliefs, animal rights concerns, environmental consciousness, economics, health, or simply that they don’t like the taste of meat. Whatever the motivation, vegetarians who know how to adapt their diet to the demands of athletic performance enjoy much upside and practically no downside.
In 2009, The American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada endorsed vegetarian diets for sports training in a joint position statement on nutrition and athletic performance. This official “seal of approval” backed up what many dietitians had been observing for years–that all else being equal, a carefully chosen plant-based training and competition diet can actually be superior to an omnivore’s regimen.
Vegetarian diets are virtually always rich in both simple and complex carbohydrates, providing efficient fuel for all training intensity levels. In addition, vegetarians tend to consume larger quantities of phytochemicals–healthy plant-based compounds such as antioxidants that help protect muscle cells and assist with building strength, extending endurance, and enhancing recovery.
With meat removed from the dietary equation, vegetarians typically don’t eat as much fat–especially saturated fat–or cholesterol. And the fat they do consume is more often “healthy fat,” such as the omega-3 fatty acids found in avocados, nuts, and seeds.
While all vegetarians can enjoy those benefits and more, it’s important to note that vegetarianism isn’t a one-size-fits-all designation. People who self-identify as vegetarian have many different dietary profiles, generally fitting into one of these categories:
Vegan. These individuals exclude all meat products, dairy, and eggs. In general, they avoid any products derived from animals, which may include food items such as honey and gelatin. Often they’ll even refuse to wear silk, wool, or leather clothing. Without careful dietary planning, they are at increased risk for deficiencies in vitamin B12, zinc, calcium, creatine, and some essential amino acids.
Fruitarian. Members of this subset of veganism restrict their diet even further, eating only raw or dried fruits and vegetables, seeds, honey, and oil. Of all categories of vegetarians, these people are at highest risk for vitamin, mineral, protein, and essential fat deficiencies.
Lacto-vegetarian. As a rule, lacto-vegetarians abstain from meat but do drink milk and eat dairy products. Accordingly, they have less difficulty meeting their dietary protein, fat, and calcium needs than non-dairy-eating vegetarians. Ovo-lacto-vegetarians are a similar category, including eggs in their diet as well as dairy.
Pesco-vegetarian. These individuals eat fish and other seafood, but no meat. They may or may not include dairy products and eggs in their diet, and they aren’t typically predisposed to any significant nutrient deficiencies.
Flexitarian. This is just what it sounds like–flexitarians are flexible in their food choices, but typically eat meat only occasionally. Some use this term to describe a diet with low or moderate amounts of white meat such as chicken and pork, but no red meat.
With so much variety in eating habits among those who practice a form of vegetarianism, it’s difficult to generalize about every potential deficiency risk. It’s a good idea for all athletes, and vegetarians especially, to periodically undergo a dietary assessment in which they log all food intake for several days and review the results with a nutritionist. Blood tests can also be used to check for low levels of nutrients like iron and calcium. This precaution may be especially helpful for athletes with the most restrictive diets, such as vegans.
Like all people, vegetarians who eat a healthy, balanced diet can be assured of getting ample amounts of vitamins, minerals, phytonutrients, fats, carbohydrates, and protein to fuel themselves for performance, while those who eat poorly are at risk for deficiencies in things like iron, calcium, zinc, vitamins D and B12, and essential fats and amino acids. The only major difference is that vegetarians have a smaller spectrum of foods from which to choose–much smaller in the case of the most restrictive types–so they need to pay closer attention to their intake than omnivores.
When fueling for sports, one of the most basic concerns is adequate calorie consumption, which some vegetarians find challenging because plant-based foods often have lower calorie densities and more fiber. As a result, the athlete consumes less energy overall before feeling full. An easy way to overcome this is to consciously include calorie-dense foods at mealtimes–excellent choices include nuts, nut butters, seeds and oils, soy- and tofu-based meat alternatives, soy milk, textured vegetable protein, tempeh, and fruit juices and smoothies. Vegetarians should also place extra emphasis on consuming calories throughout the day in the form of snacks and beverages to increase energy intake.
Calculating protein, carbohydrate, and fat needs for vegetarians can be somewhat different than for omnivores. Carbohydrates typically aren’t a problem–in fact, a meta-analysis of 63 research studies showed that vegans and vegetarians consistently had higher dietary percentages of carbohydrates than meat eaters.
Carbohydrates for vegetarians come mainly from grains, fruits, vegetables, dairy, and dairy substitutes, and should constitute approximately six to 10 grams per kilogram of body weight (2.7 to 4.5 grams per pound) per day to replenish glycogen stores and fuel activity. For endurance athletes who train more than 60 to 90 minutes a day, the vegetarian diet is especially beneficial because of its emphasis on complex carbs. Most fruits and starchy foods provide about 15 grams of carbohydrates per serving, while milk and dairy substitutes provide around 12 grams per cup, and vegetables roughly 10 grams per cup.
As for protein, the American Dietetic Association advises that vegetarians eat roughly 10 percent more than the standard recommendation for meat eaters, because many non-meat proteins are less bioavailable than meat-based sources. This means an optimal daily intake for vegetarian athletes is roughly 1.3 to 1.8 grams per kilogram of body weight (0.5 to 0.8 grams per pound), depending on the intensity of training.
Even with meat out of the equation, there are many high-protein vegetarian food choices, including beans and peas, nuts, dairy products, fish, sport bars, and protein shakes, so getting enough just takes a little creativity and planning. Since vegans have fewer options due to the exclusion of dairy and fish, they can make up the difference with larger quantities of soy, seitan (wheat-based protein), and seeds.
Different protein sources contain different essential amino acids (EAAs)–that is, amino acids the body does not produce naturally so they must be obtained through diet. These amino acids comprise the basic building blocks of protein, and while they’re plentiful in animal products, they tend to be more limited in other foods: While a plant or dairy source may be rich in one particular EAA, it may contain very little of others. Therefore, variety is key for vegetarian athletes. They must be discouraged from getting into food “ruts” in which they eat similar meals day after day. Those who do struggle with variety should be pointed toward soy products, as these are some of the only plant-based foods that have all the essential amino acids.
In high-intensity sports, the meat-based fuel source creatine provides extra energy for working muscles. Meat eaters typically get roughly one gram of creatine per day from their diet, and the body synthesizes approximately one more gram in the liver, kidneys, and pancreas using the amino acids arginine and glycine as precursors. Research shows that vegetarians consistently have lower creatine levels than omnivores, so some study authors suggest vegetarian athletes may benefit from moderate creatine supplementation.
However, it’s important to note that the benefits and health risks of prolonged creatine use are still the subject of debate. Any athlete interested in creatine supplementation should first undergo a dietary analysis to see if they’re struggling with deficiencies that can be resolved to provide a performance and energy boost without the use of supplements.
Fats are essential for long-term energy, hormone production, and the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins including A, D, E, and K. The standard recommendation is that fat should make up 20 to 35 percent of total calories in an athlete’s diet. Research shows that vegetarians generally consume less fat than meat eaters, and this accounts for numerous health benefits, such as lower lipid levels and body mass index, and reduced risk for hypertension and diabetes. But too little fat can be problematic.
In particular, diets that do not include fish or eggs can be low in beneficial omega-3 fatty acids. Not surprisingly, vegan athletes are most at risk for deficiency. These athletes should be encouraged to get their essential fatty acids through sources such as soy, walnuts, almonds, pistachios, flax, and canola oils. There are also algae-based supplements marketed to vegetarians that are rich in specific omega-3 fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA).
When meat is eliminated from the diet, certain vitamin and mineral levels must be carefully monitored. Those who are new to vegetarianism may have been getting most of their vitamin B12, iron, calcium, and zinc from animal products without knowing it.
Studies have found that zinc levels are typically lower in vegetarians than omnivores, which is not surprising since 50 to 70 percent of zinc in our diet regularly comes from meat and dairy. Zinc is essential for protein synthesis, immune system function, and new blood cell formation.
The recommended daily amount is 11 milligrams for men and nine milligrams for women, but these values may be too low for competitive athletes, since strenuous exercise can lead to increased zinc loss through sweat and urine. To further complicate matters for vegetarians, a plant compound called phytate found in the hulls of many nuts, grains, and seeds may inhibit zinc bioavailability in humans.
According to The American Dietetic Association’s position paper on vegetarian diets, one way to increase zinc absorption from beans, grains, and seeds is to soak them in water before eating them. Another effective method is to eat fortified cereals and other zinc-rich foods together with citrus fruit, which helps promote absorption.
Calcium recommendations for active males and pre-menopausal females are typically 1,200 to 1,500 milligrams daily for adolescents and 1,000 milligrams for adults. Calcium is essential for bone integrity and also plays an important role in circulatory and nervous system health. Low calcium intake can increase the risk of stress fractures, especially in amenorrheic female athletes.
Some research suggests that vegetarians may have lower calcium needs than omnivores because the higher protein and sodium intake typical of meat eaters leads to greater calcium excretion, but the jury is still out on that theory. In any case, there’s no need to gamble, since calcium is easy to find in dairy products and fortified dairy alternatives like soy, rice, and almond milks, tofu, juices, shakes, and greens.
Iron is critical for all athletes because it synthesizes hemoglobin and myoglobin, which transport oxygen to muscles. Athletes and growing adolescents are at particularly high risk for iron deficiency, partly because of the natural demands of physical growth and partly due to iron loss through heavy sweating. Another iron-related issue is hemolysis, or the destruction of red blood cells, which can be caused by high-volume endurance training.
As with zinc, the standard daily recommendation for iron consumption (which ranges from eight to 18 milligrams per day depending on age and gender) is likely too low for vegetarians because of the lower absorption rate of non-meat iron sources. The form of iron found in plants, called non-heme iron, is less bioavailable than the heme iron found in meat and fish.
Many vegetarians take an iron supplement to ensure they get an adequate supply of this vital mineral. But it’s not hard to get enough iron in the vegetarian diet through beans, fortified cereals, greens, and dried fruits. Consuming iron-rich foods along with citrus fruit and other fruits and vegetables rich in vitamin C, such as broccoli, red and green peppers, and strawberries, also helps to increase iron absorption.
One other nutrient for which vegetarians may be at risk of deficiency is B12. Found only in animal products and foods fortified with it, B12 is an important coenzyme required for the normal metabolism of protein, carbohydrates, and fats. The daily recommendation is 2.4 micrograms, which can be obtained through fortified cereals, bars, shakes, rice and soy milk, and nutritional yeast. If a vegetarian athlete is unsure of their B12 level, a simple blood test can determine if they have a sufficient supply.
Athletes who choose the vegetarian lifestyle can give themselves an edge over their meat-eating peers. Whether they do it for health reasons, moral reasons, or simply personal preference, as long as they monitor their intake of key macro- and micronutrients, they’re well positioned to achieve optimal fueling for performance and health.
Sidebar: ON THE SHELVES
As meat-free lifestyles continue to grow in popularity, it’s easier than ever to find quality vegetarian products at supermarkets and specialty stores. This list contains some brand names to look for at your local store. Many of the products listed can also be purchased online.
Arrowhead Mills: Grains and cereals Amy’s: Frozen vegetarian and vegan foods Boca: Veggie burgers and frozen vegetarian foods Clif & Luna: Vegan energy bars Earth Balance: Vegan “butter” Eden: Soy milk and pasta Ener-G: Egg substitute for baking Fantastic Foods: Bean dip mixes and dried soups Field Roast: Vegan sandwich slices Gardenburger: Frozen meat substitutes Lightlife: Meat substitutes and meals Linda Loma: Meat substitutes and non-dairy beverages Morningstar Farms: Frozen meat substitutes Nasoya: Tofu and tofu-based products Soy Delicious: Soy ice cream Silk: Soy milk Soymage: Vegan “cheese” Sunergia Soyfoods: Marinated tofu Vega: Shakes, bars, smoothie mix, and electrolyte formula Vitasoy: Soy milk Vegenaise: Non-dairy mayo Yves: Meat substitutes and vegan prepared meals
Sidebar: DAILY MENUS
Here are two sample meal plans for vegetarian athletes that provide an adequate supply of energy, carbohydrates, protein, and healthy fat along with vitamins and minerals and a broad spectrum of amino acids.
BREAKFAST Egg Beaters (egg substitute) omelet with veggies and shredded soy cheese 1 cup of citrus fruit 1 whole-grain bagel with soy spread
MORNING SNACK Endurance drink with pretzels
LUNCH 1 bowl of bean soup with whole-grain crackers Veggie pizza with soy cheese Green salad with mixed veggies
AFTERNOON SNACK 2 ounces of almond cheese 1 apple 1 ounce of almonds
DINNER Salad greens BBQ soy “beef” skewers 1 baked sweet potato with soy spread Soy yogurt parfait with granola and mixed berries
LATE-NIGHT SNACK Hot chocolate made with rice milk
BREAKFAST Whole-grain waffles with mixed berry topping 1 cup of soy yogurt 1 cup of mixed citrus fruit
MORNING SNACK Soy-based energy bar 1 cup of soy, hemp, or almond milk made into a smoothie with a banana and berries
LUNCH Veggie wrap with whole-grain tortilla and grilled tempeh strips Fruit salad: melon, banana, citrus, and pear Vegetable juice
AFTERNOON SNACK Endurance drink with high-carb sports bar
DINNER 3 cups of whole-grain spaghetti with red sauce and veggies 2 whole-grain rolls Green salad with mixed veggies
LATE-NIGHT SNACK Jell-o with whipped soy cream
FEEDBACK: As a vegetarian I was very excited to see the vegetarian article in the March issue of T & C. After reading the “sample meal plan for vegans” I was a little concerned. Day two’s late night snack recommends Jell-O. Many people aren’t aware that Jell-O isn’t vegan/vegetarian. There are never-ending online threads of confused vegetarians if “vegetarian Jello” is typed in a search engine such as Google or Yahoo. Perhaps clarifying with “vegan Jell-O” would have been more appropriate. Putting that aside, the rest of the article was great! Thanks for paying attention to us vegetarians/vegans! – A Kaufman
Editor’s note: Jell-O is made using heavily processed collagen collected from animal parts, such as hides and bones. So while it is technically an animal product and thus would be avoided by vegans, vegetarians may consider Jell-O acceptable because it does not contain meat. The online version of this article replaces the word “vegan” with “vegetarian” in the introduction to the Daily Menus section to reflect this fact.