May 5, 2013
May/June 2013: Catching up with the Triad

Nattiv A, Loucks AB, Manore MM, Sanborn CF, Sundgot-Borgen J, Warren MP. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. The female athlete triad. MedSciSports Exerc. 2007;39(10):1867-82.

Otis CL, Drinkwater B, Johnson M, Loucks A, Wilmore J. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. The Female Athlete Triad. MedSciSports Exerc. 1997;29(5):i-ix.

Rumball JS, Lebrun CM. Preparticipation physical examination: selected issues for the female athlete. ClinJSport Med. 2004;14(3):153-60.

Waldrop J. Early identification and interventions for female athlete triad. JPediatrHealth Care. 2005;19(4):213-20.

Beals KA, Manore MM. Disorders of the female athlete triad among collegiate athletes. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. 2002;12(3):281-93.

Beals KA, Hill AK. The prevalence of disordered eating, menstrual dysfunction, and low bone mineral density among US collegiate athletes. International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism. 2006;16(1):1-23.

Beals KA. Eating disorder and mentsrual dysfunction screening, education, and treatment programs survey results from NCAA Division I schools the physician and sportsmedicine. 2003;31(7):33-41.

Beals KA. Eating behaviors, nutritional status, and menstrual function in elite female adolescent volleyball players. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 2002;102(9):1293-6.

Hoch AZ, Pajewski NM, Moraski L, Carrera GF, Wilson CR, Hoffmann RG, et al. Prevalence of the female athlete triad in high school athletes and sedentary students. Clin J Sport Med. 2009;19(5):421-8. Epub 2009/09/11.

Wiksten-Almstromer M, Hirschberg AL, Hagenfeldt K. Menstrual disorders and associated factors among adolescent girls visiting a youth clinic. Acta ObstetGynecolScand. 2007;86(1):65-72.

Greydanus DE, Patel DR. The female athlete. Before and beyond puberty. PediatrClinNorth Am. 2002;49(3):553-80, vi.

Loucks AB. Effects of Exercise Training on the Menstrual-Cycle – Existence and Mechanisms. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 1990;22(3):275-80.

Shangold M, Rebar RW, Wentz AC, Schiff I. Evaluation and Management of Menstrual Dysfunction in Athletes. Jama-Journal of the American Medical Association. 1990;263(12):1665-9.

Torstveit MK, Sundgot-Borgen J. The female athlete triad: Are elite athletes at increased risk? Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 2005;37(2):184-93.

Austin TM, Reinking MF, Hayes AM. Menstrual function in female high school cross-country athletes. Int J Adolesc Med Health. 2009;21(4):555-65. Epub 2010/03/24.

Barkai HS, Nichols JF, Rauh MJ, Barrack MT, Lawson MJ, Levy SS. Influence of sports participation and menarche on bone mineral density of female high school athletes. J Sci Med Sport 2007 Jun;10(3):170-9 Epub 2006 Jul 17. 2007.

Official Position of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry, (2005).

Khan KM, Liu-Ambrose T, Sran MM, Ashe MC, Donaldson MG, Wark JD. New criteria for female athlete triad syndrome? As osteoporosis is rare, should osteopenia be among the criteria for defining the female athlete triad syndrome? BrJSports Med. 2002;36(1):10-3.

Loud KJ, Gordon CM. Adolescent bone health. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2006;160(10):1026-32. Epub 2006/10/05.

Nichols JF, Rauh MJ, Lawson MJ, Ji M, Barkai HS. Prevalence of the female athlete triad syndrome among high school athletes. ArchPediatrAdolescMed. 2006;160(2):137-42.

Beals KA, Manore MM. The prevalence and consequences of subclinical eating disorders in female athletes. IntJSport Nutr. 1994;4(2):175-95.

Black DR, Larkin LJ, Coster DC, Leverenz LJ, Abood DA. Physiologic Screening Test for Eating Disorders/Disordered Eating Among Female Collegiate Athletes. JAthlTrain. 2003;38(4):286-97.

Cobb KL, Bachrach LK, Greendale G, Marcus R, Neer RM, Nieves J, et al. Disordered eating, menstrual irregularity, and bone mineral density in female runners. MedSciSports Exerc. 2003;35(5):711-9.

DePalma MT, Koszewski WM, Romani W, Case JG, Zuiderhof NJ, McCoy PM. Identifying college athletes at risk for pathogenic eating. BrJSports Med. 2002;36(1):45-50.

Gibson JH, Mitchell A, Harries MG, Reeve J. Nutritional and exercise-related determinants of bone density in elite female runners. OsteoporosInt. 2004.

Gutgesell ME, Moreau KL, Thompson DL. Weight Concerns, Problem Eating Behaviors, and Problem Drinking Behaviors in Female Collegiate Athletes. JAthlTrain. 2003;38(1):62-6.

Hahn T. Criterion related validity of self-reported knee symptoms among athletes. ScandJMedSciSports. 2002;12(5):282-7.

Hulley AJ, Hill AJ. Eating disorders and health in elite women distance runners. IntJEatDisord. 2001;30(3):312-7.

Smolak L, Murnen SK, Ruble AE. Female athletes and eating problems: a meta-analysis. IntJEatDisord. 2000;27(4):371-80.

Zawila LG, Steib CS, Hoogenboom B. The Female Collegiate Cross-Country Runner: Nutritional Knowledge and Attitudes. JAthlTrain. 2003;38(1):67-74.

Thein-Nissenbaum JM, Rauh MJ, Carr KE, Loud KJ, McGuine TA. Associations Between Disordered Eating, Menstrual Dysfunction, and Musculoskeletal Injury Among High School Athletes. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2011;4(2):60-9. Epub 2011/01/08.

Mencias T, Noon M, Hoch AZ. Female athlete triad screening in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I athletes: is the preparticipation evaluation form effective? Clin J Sport Med. 2012;22(2):122-5. Epub 2012/01/24.

Gibbs JC, Williams NI, De Souza MJ. Prevalence of Individual and Combined Components of the Female Athlete Triad. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2012. Epub 2012/12/19.

Troy K, Hoch AZ, Stavrakos JE. Awareness and comfort in treating the Female Athlete Triad: are we failing our athletes? WMJ : official publication of the State Medical Society of Wisconsin. 2006;105(7):21-4. Epub 2006/12/14.

Vaughan JL, King KA, Cottrell RR. Collegiate Athletic Trainers’ Confidence in Helping Female Athletes With Eating Disorders. J Athl Train. 2004;39(1):71-6. Epub 2004/04/16.

Pantano KJ. Strategies used by physical therapists in the U.S. for treatment and prevention of the female athlete triad. Physical therapy in sport : official journal of the Association of Chartered Physiotherapists in Sports Medicine. 2009;10(1):3-11. Epub 2009/02/17.

De La Torre DM, Snell BJ. Use of the preparticipation physical exam in screening for the female athlete triad among high school athletes. The Journal of school nursing : the official publication of the National Association of School Nurses. 2005;21(6):340-5. Epub 2005/11/16.

Bonci CM, Bonci LJ, Granger LR, Johnson CL, Malina RM, Milne LW, et al. National athletic trainers’ association position statement: preventing, detecting, and managing disordered eating in athletes. J Athl Train. 2008;43(1):80-108. Epub 2008/03/13.

Dusek T. Influence of high intensity training on menstrual cycle disorders in athletes. Croat Med J. 2001;42(1):79-82. Epub 2001/02/15.

Singh KB. Menstrual disorders in college students. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1981;140(3):299-302. Epub 1981/06/01.

Chumlea WC, Schubert CM, Roche AF, Kulin HE, Lee PA, Himes JH, et al. Age at menarche and racial comparisons in US girls. Pediatrics. 2003;111(1):110-3. Epub 2003/01/02.

Nichols JF, Rauh MJ, Barrack MT, Barkai HS, Pernick Y. Disordered eating and menstrual irregularity in high school athletes in lean-build and nonlean-build sports. IntJSport NutrExercMetab. 2007;17(4):364-77.

Nichols JF, Rauh MJ, Barrack MT, Barkai HS. Bone mineral density in female high school athletes: interactions of menstrual function and type of mechanical loading. Bone. 2007;41(3):371-7.

World Health Organization multicenter study on menstrual and ovulatory patterns in adolescent girls. II. Longitudinal study of menstrual patterns in the early postmenarcheal period, duration of bleeding episodes and menstrual cycles. World Health Organization Task Force on Adolescent Reproductive Health. J Adolesc Health Care. 1986;7(4):236-44. Epub 1986/07/01.




Shop see all »



75 Applewood Drive, Suite A
P.O. Box 128
Sparta, MI 49345
616.520.2137
website development by deyo designs
Interested in receiving the print or digital edition of Training & Conditioning?

Subscribe Today »

Be sure to check out our sister sites: